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Social Engineering

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In today’s world, information has become one of the most valuable resources for organisations. However, sharing this information with other entities often raises concerns about privacy invasion. As a result, organisations are seeking ways to establish security measures and safeguard their information. These measures often include installing surveillance systems, physical safeguards, and technological solutions. However, amidst these precautions, there exists a highly vulnerable store of information: the human mind. Regardless of the security mechanisms implemented to protect assets, there is always a human factor involved when granting access to information, and this creates a vulnerability to the threat of social engineering.

What is Social Engineering

Social engineering involves the strategic use of persuasive and deceptive techniques to obtain confidential information, gain access to systems, or manipulate individuals into performing specific actions. By exploiting human weaknesses, social engineering aims to overcome traditional security barriers by directly targeting individuals.

This technique is not limited to a single domain; its scope spans both the digital and physical worlds. In online environments, social engineers can employ methods such as phishing, where they deceive people into revealing personal information or access credentials. In the physical world, social engineers can gain people’s trust to access secure locations or privileged information.

Social engineering is based on an understanding of human psychology, including aspects of trust, fear, curiosity, and the need to be helpful. Social engineers often study their targets and use this information to design their strategies precisely. Due to its covert and well-planned nature, social engineering can be challenging to detect, making it a significant security threat.


The stages of social engineering may vary depending on the context and goal, but they can be described in the following steps:

(1) Information Gathering:

Social engineers first collect information about their target. This might involve online research, exploring social media profiles, searching for public information, and any other data that helps understand the person’s life, interests, and behaviours.

(2) Creating a Profile:

With the gathered information, the social engineer creates a detailed profile of the target individual. This includes their personality, interests, social connections, and any potential weaknesses that can be exploited. This stage is crucial for designing a personalised and convincing approach.

(3) Building Trust:

In this phase, the social engineer seeks to establish a trusting relationship with the target individual, for example by being friendly, supportive, or sharing similar interests. The goal is to make the person feel comfortable, and less likely to question the intentions of the social engineer.

(4) Emotional Manipulation and Exploitation:

Once a certain level of trust is gained, the social engineer can start exploiting the individual’s weaknesses. This could involve exploiting their fears, desires, needs, or curiosity. Through emotional manipulation, the engineer aims to make the person act in a way they otherwise wouldn’t. The social engineer might request confidential information, persuade the individual to perform specific actions, or provide incentives to them to get what they want.

(5) Achieving the Objective:

In this stage, the social engineer achieves their goal, which could be obtaining information, accessing systems, or persuading the individual to take a specific action. 

(6) Closing and Cleanup:

After achieving the objective, the social engineer may attempt to disappear or cover their tracks to avoid detection. This could involve erasing digital traces, changing fake identities, or removing any evidence that could lead back to them.

Types of Attack

Here are some common types of social engineering attacks:


Phishing attacks involve sending fake emails or messages that appear legitimate. The aim of these communications is to deceive people into revealing personal information such as passwords, credit card numbers, or other confidential data.

Spear Phishing:

Similar to phishing, spear phishing targets specific individuals or a small group. Attackers thoroughly research their targets and customise messages to make them more convincing.


In this type of attack, the attacker creates a false scenario or pretext to obtain information. They might impersonate an authority figure, such as a tech support employee, and request confidential information under the pretence of solving issues.

Quid Pro Quo:

In this type of attack, malicious actors offer something in return for information. For example, they might offer “help” with a computer issue in exchange for login credentials.


Baiting attackers offer something enticing, like a USB device with an intriguing name, to get the victim to plug it into their computer. Once connected, it can spread malware or steal information.


In this attack, attackers redirect people to fake websites without their knowledge. This can be achieved by manipulating DNS settings or using malware.

Reverse Social Engineering:

Instead of the attacker initiating contact, reverse social engineering involves the victim initiating communication, potentially leading to the unintentional reveal of sensitive information.

How to Avoid These Attacks

To prevent social engineering attacks and protect your confidential information, it’s essential to adopt good practices and develop a security mindset. Here are some measures you can take:

(1) Education and Awareness:

Learn about the different types of social engineering attacks, how they work, and how to recognise them. Organisations and companies should provide regular security training to their employees so they can recognise and avoid social engineering attacks. This should involve the deployment of internal phishing tests to evaluate employee awareness and enhance training if necessary.

(2) Source Verification:

Always verify the identity of anyone requesting information or actions. If contacted by phone, email, or message, make sure the request is legitimate before providing any data or complying.

(3) Doubt Unusual Requests:

If someone asks for sensitive information or unusual actions, take a moment to question the request and consider if it aligns with the organisation’s normal practices.

(4) Protect Online Information:

Avoid sharing sensitive personal information on social media. Attackers often use personal data posted online to tailor attacks. Further, ensure your social media profiles have strong privacy settings to limit the amount of information strangers can see.

(5) Strong Passwords and MFA:

Use unique and robust passwords for your online accounts. Avoid using obvious personal information in your passwords. Further, enable two-factor authentication whenever possible. This adds an extra layer of security, even if someone obtains your password.

(6) URL Verification:

Before clicking links in emails or messages, verify the website’s URL. Make sure the address is legitimate before providing information.

(7) Updates and Patches:

Keep your devices and applications up to date with the latest security patches to protect against vulnerabilities.

(8) Beware of urgency or induced fear:

Attackers often try to pressure you into acting quickly. If you feel pressured, take a step back and assess the situation calmly.

(9) Security policies:

Establish and follow strong security policies within your organisation. This may include identity verification procedures, and rules regarding the exchange of confidential information.

(10) Confirm before acting:

If you’re unsure about the legitimacy of a request, communicate directly with the source through official channels to confirm before taking any action.

Preventing social engineering attacks requires constant vigilance, and a solid understanding of the tactics attackers use. By maintaining a security mindset and applying these measures, you can significantly reduce the risk of falling into social engineering traps.


In summary, social engineering has become a significant threat in a world where information is a crucial asset. As organisations strengthen their technological defences, the inherent vulnerability of the human mind remains a weak point exploited by attackers. The scope and sophistication of social engineering attacks are astonishing, encompassing both digital and physical realms, and utilising a variety of persuasive and deceitful techniques. Awareness and education stand as key defences against these attacks, along with the implementation of robust security practices and constant vigilance. Ultimately, understanding human psychology and implementing preventative measures are essential to mitigate risks and safeguard valuable information assets.

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